Skip to content
Sep 7 13

Abnormal colors of urine

by mifrah

UFR ( Urine Full Report ) is a test generally carried out at all clinical laboratories. It’s also known as urine analysis. It’s used to screen or diagnose substances or cellular materials in urine associated with metabolic disorders, renal function and urinary tract infection ( UTI ).

UFR mainly includes three main examinations.

  1. Physical / macroscopic examination
  2. Chemical examination
  3. Microscopic examination

In physical examination, the color, the appearance and the odor of the urine are considered. In most of the circumstances, the patient’s health status can be predicted with color of the urine. A healthy individual’s urine is normally shade of yellow. It ranges from pale yellow to yellow depending on the concentration of solutes in ( pH ) urine and pigments. Urochrome, uroerythrin and urobilin are pigments reason for the characteristic color of urine.The acid urine is darker than alkaline urine. read more…

Jun 27 11

Meningococal Septicaemia – Case study presentation

by mifrah

This is my case study presentation created for my final year case study examination. I would like to share this with you all. Don’t forget to click the play button as it includes voice as well.

Your comments and feedbacks are appreciated.

May 26 11

Hemolytic Disease of Newborn – HDN

by mifrah

HDN is caused by hyper immune IgG immunoglobulin during pregnancy. The hyper immune immunoglobulins are able to cross the placenta and bind with corresponding antigens on the surface of fetal RBC. Eventually this will lead to hemolysis of fetal RBC. This is also called as Erythroblastosis fetalis.

There are two instances where hyper immune immunoglobulins (IgG) are developed.
1. When Rh negative mother conceiving Rh positive baby.
2. When blood group O or group A2 mothers conceiving blood group A, B and AB baby.


read more…

Feb 3 11


by mifrah

Biopsy is a piece of tissue or whole organ removed from body for histological studies. They are removed on the purpose of diagnosis of disease or prognosis of treatments. Meanwhile, the extend of disease and the second pathology of disease could be able to detect by examination biopsies. The biopsy is also used to match the organ tissue prior to transplantation (Example Renal biopsy).

Basically, biopsies can be divided in to 07 groups on the basis of method of removal of tissue form the body .

  1. Needle biopsy
  2. Punch biopsy
  3. Incisional biopsy
  4. Excisional biopsy
  5. Currettage biopsy
  6. Extracting tissue piece by piece
  7. Endoscopic biopsy

read more…

Feb 2 11

G6PD Deficiency and Chronic Kidney Disease

by mifrah

Glucose – 6 – phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD deficiency) is the most common enzymopathy in human. This enzymopathy affects more than 400 million people worldwide4-5. It has a wide geographical distribution, reaching higher prevalence in certain parts of Africa, the Mediterranean and Asia. The incidence of G6PD deficiency over 1{766ae208bec50026fbb7b483ffd0131874bc817b7f7b0d78a9a3f95ea0e64b58} is distributed in the Mediterranean regions, across the Middle East, India, Indochina, South China as well as middle Africa. This distribution is similar to that of the thalassemia and endemic malaria infection in the past. More than 140 different mutations of the G6PD gene have been identified4. read more…

Nov 6 10

Electron Microscope

by mifrah

Electron microscope is a instrument used to study the fine details of cell structure by which magnification is done by emitting a electron beam at high voltage through electromagnatic lenses in a vaccum chamber.

There are two types of electron microscopes; Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Scanning electron microscope. In Transmission electron microscope, the electron beam passes through the specimen and projects an image onto a fluorescent screen (Zinc sulphide). It magnifies the image up to 500,000 times than its normal size. Its resolution is 0.14nm. The Transmission electron microscope is used to study the two dimentional features of intrastructure  (ultra structure) of the specimen. Ultra thin sections (60nm) are examined with Transmission electron microscope.

In Scanning electron microscope, Incident electron beam onto the specimen will be reflected and form an image on TV screen. It magnifies the image 200,000 times. Its resolution power is 5nm. It scans the surface of the specimen and gives detailed surface structure. Biological and non biological samples are examined using scanning electron microscope.

The ideal specimen for electron microscopy is biopsies. Living tissues can not be examined with Electron microscope. Therefore the tissue should be preserved as closely as living state. 2{58cd716989699d561e07eed7f371f717b4e2b8d0a4dba95f1ca9150bd3161838} Gluteraldehyde is known as good fixative for preserving electron microscopic specimens. The biopsy collected for electron microscope should be placed at once in 2{58cd716989699d561e07eed7f371f717b4e2b8d0a4dba95f1ca9150bd3161838}¬† gluteraldehyde containing bottle and sent to the laboratory in ice as soon as possible. If delay is unavoidable, the specimen should be stored at 4oC. The 5×5 mm size biopsy is cut into 4-5 pieces and washed in 0.1{58cd716989699d561e07eed7f371f717b4e2b8d0a4dba95f1ca9150bd3161838} PBS for 5-6 times. each wash should take at least 5 minutes.Then the specimen should be treated with 1{58cd716989699d561e07eed7f371f717b4e2b8d0a4dba95f1ca9150bd3161838} osmium tetra oxide for 10 minutes.Osmium tetra oxide is highly carcinogenic. Therefore this procedure should be done under a fume hood. read more…

Jul 19 10

Quality Control on MacConkey Agar

by mifrah


MacConkey agar is used for isolation and differentiation of gram negative enteric bacilli from specimen containing swarming strains of Proteus spp. This is a useful medium to differentiate Lactose fermenters from non-lactose fermenting organisms. The selective agents of MacConkey Agar inhibit the growth of gram positive organisms.

Principle of Medium

Peptone is source of nitrogen and other nutrients. Lactose is fermentable carbohydrate. when lactose is fermented, a local pH drop around the colony cause a colour change in pH indicator(neutral red) and bile precipitation. Bile salts, oxgall and crystal violet are selective agents that inhibits growth of gram positive organisms. Agar is the solidified agent.
read more…

Jun 17 10

Radio Active Waste Disposal

by mifrah

All radio active waste should be properly disposed with a minimum of delay. They must not allow to accumulate in the laboratory.A record must be kept for radiological waste disporsal containing type of waste, date, nuclide activity and means of disposal. In the nuclear medicine laboratory, wastes are divided in to following groups and they are disposed in separate methods.
1. Liquid waste
2.Liquid scintillant waste
3. Solid waste of low activity
4. Clinical waste and biological cotaminated waste
5. Solid waste of higher activity
6. sharp objects
7. Gaseous waste

read more…

Jun 4 10

Lateral Flow Technology in Laboratory Practice

by mifrah

The lateral flow technology (test) is also known as Immunochromatographic Technology (test). There are varieties of strips designed using lateral flow technology for detecting many analytes quantitatively in direct patient samples. A specific antibody to a specific analyte present in the sample is impregnated in the lateral flow test strip. These test strips are usually used with following samples.

  • Urine
  • Serum
  • Whole blood
  • Saliva

The lateral flow test strips are used in laboratory for screening tests. For examples detection of pregnancy; detection of infections such as malaria, avian influenza virus, HIV, syphilis etc. if the lateral flow test strips show positive result, the confirmatory tests are done to verify the disease.

read more…

Jun 1 10

Accreditation Requirements for Medical Laboratory

by mifrah

The medical laboratory is the place where biological samples are analyzed for the purpose of screening, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment or prevention of diseases. Therefore a quality medical laboratory services are essential for patient care. This quality services should fulfill the needs of all patients and clinical personnel responsible for the care of such patients.

ISO: 15189:2007 standards explain the requirements need to establish a quality and competent medical laboratory. When a laboratory implements its requirements under ISO: 15189:2007 standards, the accreditation board gives formal recognition that the laboratory is competent to carry out specific task. The ISO: 15189:2007 standards consist of two main requirements; Management requirements and technical requirements.

read more…